Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(2):448-458. doi:10.7150/ijms.51297 This issue
1. Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou, China, 310009.
2. Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Yuhangtang Road 866, Hangzhou, China, 310009.
3. Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou, China, 310009.
Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the predominant subtype of lung cancer with a relatively poor prognosis. The dramatic improvements of new immunotherapy strategies have shown promising results in lung cancer patients. This study aimed to elucidate the functions of immune-associated genes in LUAD prognosis and pathogenesis by analyzing public databases. We obtained expression profiles of LUAD patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and applied the ESTIMATE algorithm to calculate immune scores and stromal scores. A series of microenvironment-related genes with prognostic value was then identified. Of note, heat shock factor 5 (HSF5) was found to be decreased in LUAD patients and positively correlated with overall survival, which was further confirmed in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Moreover, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis based on the correlated genes of HSF5 demonstrated that HSF5 expression was significantly associated with the immune response and inflammatory activities. Based on the Tumor IMmune Estimation Resource (TIMER) and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) datasets, HSF5 expression showed strong correlations with various immune cell infiltration and diverse immune marker sets. These findings suggest that HSF5 can be used as a promising biomarker for determining prognosis and immune infiltration in LUAD patients.
Keywords: HSF5, lung adenocarcinoma, prognostic biomarker, immune infiltration, inflammatory activities