Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(4):385-394. doi:10.7150/ijms.23054 This issue
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck Oncology, Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai, 200011, PR China.
A TIE2 mutation causing arginine-to-tryptophan substitution at residue 849 (TIE2-R849W) is commonly identified in heredofamilial venous malformation. However, there is no in vivo model to confirm the pathogenic role of TIE2-R849W. Humanized TIE2-R849W plasmid was constructed via PCR-mediated site-directed mutagenesis. After transcription and micro-injection, TIE2-R849W significantly induces multiple malformations in zebrafish: caudal vein plexus (CVP) defect, eye abnormalities, forebrain formation perturbations, and mandibular malformation. Histologically, these phenotypes accompany aphakia, confused retina plexiform layer, abnormal mandibular cartilage, ectopic myelencephalon proliferation and aberrant location of neurogliocytes. According to qRT-PCR, except for high expression of egfl7, the other CVP-related genes cd146, nr2f1a, and s1pr1 are not significantly different from control. TIE2-R849W also induced upregulation of the wnt signaling pathway. Gene array in vitro shows that under the effect of TIE2-R849W, consistent with high expression of pik3 and foxo1, high levels of egfl7, wnt9a, lrp5 and dkk1 were partly confirmed. This in vivo model directly identifies the venous-related pathogenic role of TIE2-R849W. Under up-regulation of TIE2-R849W, egfl7 could be considered a potential reason for venous defects. Moreover, the wnt pathway may perform an important role as a key trigger for head multi-malformations.
Keywords: TIE2-R849W, Venous malformation, Zebrafish, Developmental malformation, Egfl7, Wnt