1. Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating Centre (OCRCC), Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;
2. Department of Oro-Maxillofacial Surgical and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;
3. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Klang, Malaysia;
4. Department of Oral Surgery, Hospital Umum Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia;
5. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;
6. Oral Cancer Research Team, Cancer Research Initiatives Foundation (CARIF), Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
BACKGROUND: Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 (CTHRC1) is a protein often found to be over-expressed in various types of human cancers. However, correlation between CTHRC1 expression level with clinico-pathological characteristics and prognosis in oral cancer remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to determine mRNA and protein expression of CTHRC1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to evaluate the clinical and prognostic impact of CTHRC1 in OSCC.
METHODS: In this study, mRNA and protein expression of CTHRC1 in OSCCs were determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The association between CTHRC1 and clinico-pathological parameters were evaluated by univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses. Correlation between CTHRC1 protein expressions with survival were analysed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models.
RESULTS: Current study demonstrated CTHRC1 was significantly overexpressed at the mRNA level in OSCC. Univariate analyses indicated a high-expression of CTHRC1 that was significantly associated with advanced stage pTNM staging, tumour size ≥ 4 cm and positive lymph node metastasis (LNM). However, only positive LNM remained significant after adjusting with other confounder factors in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox model demonstrated that patients with high-expression of CTHRC1 protein were associated with poor prognosis and is an independent prognostic factor in OSCC.
CONCLUSION: This study indicated that over-expression of CTHRC1 potentially as an independent predictor for positive LNM and poor prognosis in OSCC.
Keywords: Oral cancer, OSCC, CTHRC1, Lymph node metastasis, poor prognosis