1. Department of Gynecological of Hanoi Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam
2. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological of Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
3. Department of assisted reproduction of Hanoi Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam
4. Institute of Biomedicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
Objective: The study aims to evaluate long-term ovarian reserve change by serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level and determine the factors that affect the changes after laparoscopic endometrioma cystectomy.
Methods: In a prospective longitudinal study, 104 patients with unilateral (n=77) and bilateral (n=27) endometrioma underwent laparoscopic endometrioma cystectomy. AMH levels were measured preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to determine factors related to AMH level changes.
Results: Median preoperative AMH levels significantly declined from 3.77 ng/mL to 1.60 ng/mL (P<0.001), 1.66 ng/mL (P<0.001), 1.67 ng/mL (P<0.001), and 1.72 ng/mL (P<0.001) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, respectively. The rate of decrease in AMH was unchanged six months after surgery, 52.2%, 53.7%, 54.8% at 1, 3, 6 months, respectively, and declined to 43.2% at 12 months. Although most factors were associated with AMH level changes in monovariant linear regression, multivariant linear regression analysis showed only three factors that reached the statistical significance, including bilateral endometriomas, mean size of the endometrioma, and preoperative AMH levels.
Conclusions: Serum AMH levels decline significantly after laparoscopic cystectomy of endometriomas but recovered at 12 months compared with the first 6 months with unilateral endometrioma. Bilateral endometriomas, size of the cyst, and preoperative AMH levels might independently affect AMH levels at 12 months after surgery.
Keywords: endometrioma, anti-mullerian hormone, cystectomy, cyst size