1. Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy.
2. Pathology Unit, AOU City of Health and Science of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy.
3. Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Turin, Unit of Digestive and Oncological Surgery 1U, AOU City of Health and Science of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy.
4. Vietnam National Institute of Ophthalmology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
# Current address: Vietnam National Institute of Ophthalmology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
* These Authors contributed equally.
Enolase (ENO) 1 is a key glycolytic enzyme and important player in tumorigenesis. ENO1 overexpression has been correlated with tumor progression and/or worse prognosis in several solid malignancies. However, data concerning the impact of ENO1 in cancer conflict. The study correlated local and circulating ENO1 protein levels in esophageal cancer (EC) with clinicopathological data, to assess its potential clinical value. ENO1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in paired tumor and non-tumor tissue samples from 40 EC cases and mucosal biopsies from 45 Barrett's esophagus (BE) cases, plus in plasma from these patients and 25 matched healthy controls. ENO1 was abnormally elevated in cancer-cell cytoplasm in both EC types, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and in adenocarcinoma (EAC), increasing significantly with tumor stage progression and the transition from BE to EAC. EAC patients exhibited significantly lower ENO1 plasma concentrations than normal subjects. Neither local nor systemic ENO1 expression levels were significantly associated with overall survival. These results indicate ENO1 as potential biomarker, delineating a population of patients with Barrett's esophagus at high risk of cancer, and as new therapeutic opportunity in EC patient management. However, further confirmation might be necessary.
Keywords: Enolase 1, esophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus, tumor progression.