1. Discipline of Medical Radiations, School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia;
2. Pharmaceutical Sciences Discipline, School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia;
3. School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, Division of Health Sciences, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.
Objective: Radiosensitisation caused by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) is investigated using phantoms (PRESAGE® dosimeters) and in vitro using two types of cell lines, cultured human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and prostate cancer (DU145) cells.
Methods: Anatase TiO2-NPs were synthesised, characterised and functionalised to allow dispersion in culture-medium for in vitro studies and halocarbons (PRESAGE® chemical compositions). PRESAGE® dosimeters were scanned with spectrophotometer to determine the radiation dose enhancement. Clonogenic and cell viability assays were employed to determine cells survival curves from which the dose enhancement levels “radiosensitisation” are deduced.
Results: Comparable levels of radiosensitisation were observed in both phantoms and cells at kilovoltage ranges of x-ray energies (slightly higher in vitro). Significant radiosensitisation (~67 %) of control was also noted in cells at megavoltage energies (commonly used in radiotherapy), compared to negligible levels detected by phantoms. This difference is attributed to biochemical effects, specifically the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals (•OH), which are only manifested in aqueous environments of cells and are non-existent in case of phantoms.
Conclusions: This research shows that TiO2-NPs improve the efficiency of dose delivery, which has implications for future radiotherapy treatments. Literature shows that Ti2O3-NPs can be used as imaging agents hence with these findings renders these NPs as theranostic agents.
Keywords: Titanium dioxide, Nanoparticles, Reactive oxygen species, Radiosensitisation.