1. Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
2. Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
3. Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
4. Organ Transplantation Center, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
* The first two authors contributed equally to this work.
Objective: To investigate whether emulsified isoflurane preconditioning could reduce lung injury induced by hepatic I/R in rats and its mechanism.
Materials and methods: 32 pentobarbital-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were equally randomized into four groups: laparotomy group (Sham group), hepatic I/R and normal saline infusion group (I/R+S group), I/R and lipid vehicle infusion (I/R+V group), or I/R and 8% emulsified isoflurane infusion (I/R+E group) at the rate of 8 ml·kg-1·h-1 for 30 min. Blood supply of the hepatic artery and portal vein to the left and the median liver lobes was occluded for 90 min after 30-min washout time. Reperfusion was allowed to proceed for 4 h before sacrifice of the animals. Lung injury was observed histologically. Neutrophil infiltration and TNF-α concentration in serum and lung were measured. Changes of wet-to-dry weight ratios in lung tissue, ICAM-1 expression and NF-κB activity in lung after hepatic I/R were determined.
Results: Compared with I/R+S or I/R+V group, emulsified isoflurane preconditioning reduced hepatic I/R-induced lung histologic injury and inhibited the increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the lung tissue markedly (5.5±1.37 and 5.22±1.33 vs 3.81±1.62 U/g, P<0.05). In addition, both serum and lung tissue TNF-α levels were reduced in I/R+E group (104.58±31.40 and 94.60±22.23 vs 72.44±17.28 pg/ml, P<0.05; 393.51±88.22 and 405.46±102.87 vs 292.62±74.56 pg/ml, P<0.01). Emulsified isoflurane preconditioning also inhibited the increase of ICAM-1 expression (0.79±0.17 and 0.84±0.24 vs 0.62±0.21, P<0.05) and NF-κB translocation (4.93±0.48 and 4.76±0.57 vs 4.01±0.86, P<0.05) in the lung tissue markedly.
Conclusions: Emulsified isoflurane preconditioning markedly attenuated hepatic I/R-induced lung injury in rats, which may be hopefully applied to the clinical treatment of organ injury caused by hepatic surgery, transplantation or hemorrhagic shock.
Keywords: emulsified isoflurane, inflammation, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, neutrophils, nuclear factor-κB, rats, tumor necrosis factor-α