1. Department of Endocrinology, the Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, Jilin, P.R. China.
2. Department of Nephrology, the Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, Jilin, P.R. China.
3. Department of Comparative and Experimental Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate 24 School of Medical Sciences, Aichi 467-8601, Nagoya, Japan.
4. Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and Laboratory Animal Resource Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Tsukuba, Japan.
Diabetes mellitus and its complications pose a major threat to global health and affect the quality of life and life expectancy of patients. Currently, the application of traditional therapeutic drugs for diabetes mellitus has great limitations and can only temporarily control blood glucose but not fundamentally cure it. Mesenchymal stem cells, as pluripotent stromal cells, have multidirectional differentiation potential, high self-renewal, immune regulation, and low immunogenicity, which provide a new idea and possible development direction for diabetes mellitus treatment. Regenerative medicine with mesenchymal stem cells treatment as the core treatment will become another treatment option for diabetes mellitus after traditional treatment. Recently, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells have been widely used in basic and clinical research on diabetes mellitus and its complications because of their abundance, low ethical controversy, low risk of infection, and high proliferation and differentiation ability. This paper reviews the therapeutic role and mechanism of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in diabetes mellitus and its complications and highlights the challenges faced by the clinical application of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells to provide a more theoretical basis for the application of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in diabetes mellitus patients.
Keywords: umbilical cord, mesenchymal stem cells, diabetes mellitus, pluripotent, clinical application, regenerative medicine