1. Department of Optometry, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan.
2. Genetics Center, Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, and School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
3. Department of Pathology, Chung-Shan Medical University; Department of Pathology, Chung-Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
4. Institute of Food Safety and Health Risk Assessment, National Yang‐Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
5. Department of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University; Clinical Laboratory, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
6. Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
7. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, and Chung Shan Medical University; Clinical Laboratory, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
8. Department of Post-Modern Agriculture, MingDao University, Changhua, Taiwan.
#Equal contributions as first authors.
This study examined the effect of the Flos Lonicerae Japonicae water extract (FLJWE), chlorogenic acid, and luteolin on pseudorabies virus (PRV)-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells and elucidated related molecular mechanisms. The results revealed that FLJWE and luteolin, but not chlorogenic acid, inhibited the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inflammatory cytokines in PRV-infected RAW 264.7 cells. We found that the FLJWE and luteolin suppressed nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and 3 (STAT1 and STAT3, respectively). Moreover, the FLJWE significantly upregulated the expression of pNrf2 and its downstream target gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Our data indicated that FLJWE and luteolin reduced the expression of proinflammatory mediators and inflammatory cytokines, such as COX-2 and iNOS, through the suppression of the JAK/STAT1/3-dependent NF-κB pathway and the induction of HO-1 expression in PRV-infected RAW264.7 cells. The findings indicate that the FLJWE can be used as a potential antiviral agent.
Keywords: Flos Lonicerae Japonicae water extract (FLJWE), pseudorabies virus (PRV), antiviral inflammatory, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)