1. Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
2. NEVRON International Medical Center, Vladivostok, 690078, Russia; firstname.lastname@example.org.
3. Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
4. Department of Allergy, Immunology & Rheumatology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
5. Department of Psychiatry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
Introduction: The interaction between hyperuricemia and the cognitive system is still under debate, with studies presenting somewhat conflicting results.
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the risk of dementia in patients with gout who are administered anti-inflammatory drug treatment.
Methods: Gouty arthritis patients aged 50 years and older, who received at least one of the background therapy drugs (colchicine, corticosteroids, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 6 months), were divided into the following groups and compared: patients who had dementia over a period of 5 years (n = 2,292) and matched patients without dementia (n = 2,292).
Results: We found that the most significant risk factors for dementia were stroke (OR, 2.66; 95% C.I., 2.33-3.03; AOR, 2.39; 95% C.I., 2.08-2.75) and depression (OR, 3.72; 95% C.I., 3.01-4.6; AOR, 3.25; 95% C.I., 2.60-4.05). The results of anti-gout drug administration, which impacted the dementia risk among patients of all ages (but especially in 50-64-year-old patients), demonstrated a higher risk ratio after 90 days of corticosteroid use (OR, 3.39; 95% C.I., 1.15-9.99), which was further increased after 180 days (OR, 3.61; 95% C.I., 1.31-9.94). We revealed that female patients experienced a significant increase in dementia risk after 90 days of corticosteroid administration, whereas male patients experienced a significant increase only after 180 days (OR, 1.52; 95% C.I., 1.06-2.17).
Conclusion: We had identified that > 90-day corticosteroid administration is a significant dementia risk factor in both female and male patients of all ages, especially in the 50-60-year-old group.
Keywords: anti-inflammatory drugs, dementia, gout, old age.