1. School of Basic Medical Sciences, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637100, China.
2. School of Pharmacy, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637100, China.
3. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College; Faculty of Laboratory Medicine, Center for Translational Medicine, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000, China.
4. Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging and Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000, China.
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Trastuzumab has proven its effectiveness in gastric cancer with HER-2 gene-amplification, which has now developed resistance while the mechanism of which is not fully elucidated. Our previous studies demonstrated that the activity of GATA6 binding protein 6 (GATA6) enhanced prominently in trastuzumab resistant gastric cancer cell lines (NCI N87R and MKN45R). In the present study, we further confirmed the re-sensitization to trastuzumab and inhibition of mitochondrial functions of GATA6 knockout sublines (NCI N87R/ΔGATA6 and MKN45R/ΔGATA6). Moreover, we applied untargeted metabolomic profiling to investigate the potential roles of GATA6 in metabolism of NCI N87R and MKN45R. The UPLC system coupled with Q-Exactive Focus Orbitrap mass spectrometry, multivariate in combination with univariate analysis were performed for the screening of differential metabolites between resistant cells and GATA6 knockout sublines. A total of 68 and 59 endogenous metabolites were found to be altered significantly in NCI N87R/ΔGATA6 and MKN45R/ΔGATA6 cells compared with NCI N87R and MKN45R, respectively. Pathway analyses indicated disturbance of metabolic pathways after GATA6 knockout including tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glycolysis and energy-related amino acid pathways. An integrated proteomics-metabolomics revealed that sub-networks were closely related to TCA cycle, glycolysis, multiple amino acid and nucleotide metabolism. Western blot showed that TCA cycle and glycolysis-related molecules, including PKM, GLS, GLUL and LDHA, were downregulated in GATA6 knockout sublines. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that GATA6 is involved in metabolism reprogramming which might contribute to trastuzumab resistance in gastric cancer.
Keywords: gastric cancer, trastuzumab resistance, GATA 6, untargeted metabolomics, TCA cycle