1. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea.
2. Department of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Dental Research Institute, Yangsan, Korea.
3. Department of Integrated Biological Science, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.
4. Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea.
5. Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Pusan National University, School of Medicine, Yangsan, Republic of Korea.
Background: To maintain the normal pregnancy, suppression of inflammatory signaling pathway is a crucial physiologic response. Dexmedetomidine has been used for labor analgesia or supplement of inadequate regional analgesia during delivery. And it has been reported that dexmedetomidine has an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, we examined the influence of dexmedetomidine on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human amnion-derived WISH cells. In addition, we evaluated the association of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in anti-inflammatory effect of dexmedetomidine.
Methods: Human amnion-derived WISH cells were pretreated with various concentrations of dexmedetomidine (0.001-1 µg/ml) for 1 h and after then treated with LPS (1 µg/ml) for 24 h. MTT assay was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxicity. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed using Griess-reaction microassay. RT-PCR was performed for analysis of mRNA expressions of COX-2, PGE2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interlukin (IL)-1β. Protein expressions of COX-2, PGE2, p38 and NF-κB were analyzed by western blotting.
Results: LPS and dexmedetomidine had no cytotoxic effect on WISH cells. There was no difference in NO production after dexmedetomidine pretreatment. The mRNA and protein expressions of COX-2 and PGE2 were decreased by dexmedetomidine pretreatment in LPS-treated WISH cells. Dexmedetomidine also attenuated the LPS-induced mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-1β. The activation of p38 and NF-κB was suppressed by dexmedetomidine pretreatment in LPS-treated WISH cells.
Conclusion: We demonstrated that dexmedetomidine pretreatment suppressed the expressions of inflammatory mediators increased by LPS. In addition, this study suggests that anti-inflammatory effect of dexmedetomidine on WISH cells was mediated by the inhibitions of p38 and NF-κB activation.
Keywords: Amnion, Dexmedetomidine, Inflammation, p38, NF-κB