1. Division of Nephrology, Department of medicine, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630, China.
2. Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
3. Department of Laboratory medicine, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630, China.
# These authors contributed equally to this work.
Whether the abnormal circadian rhythm of urinary sodium excretion is associated with hypertension in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the relationship between the circadian rhythm of urinary sodium excretion and hypertension. Urinary samples were collected during both the day (07:00 to 22:00) and night (22:00 to 07:00) to estimate night/day urinary sodium excretion ratios. Blood pressure (BP) and clinical data were also measured. A total of 1,099 Chinese CKD patients were recruited, 308 patients were excluded, and 791 patients were final enrolled in this study. Among them, 291 patients were normotensive and 500 were hypertensive CKD patients. A 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed with age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) matched between 190 normotensive and hypertensive patients. In the full cohort and PSM cohort, multivariate regression analysis showed that the night/day urinary sodium excretion ratio was an independent risk factor for clinical hypertension, whereas 24 h urinary sodium excretion, diurnal and nocturnal urinary sodium excretion were not. When the night/day urinary sodium excretion ratios were further divided into tertiles (tertile 1 < 0.47, tertile 2, 0.47-0.84 and tertile 3 > 0.84), multivariate analysis showed that tertile 3 was independently associated with hypertension in the full and PSM cohorts. In addition, tertile 3 was also independently associated with eGFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and left ventricular hypertrophy. These data suggested that an abnormal circadian rhythm of urinary sodium excretion was independently associated with hypertension and target-organ damage. Individualized salt intake and therapeutic strategies should be used to normalize the natriuretic dipping profile in CKD patients.
Keywords: circadian rhythm, urinary sodium excretion, hypertension, target-organ damage.