1. Reproductive Medicine Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China, 510080
2. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Guangzhou, China, 510080
3. Reproductive Medicine Center, Jiangmen Cental Hospital, Affiliated Jiangmen Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
*Yu Fu and Xiaoting Shen contributed equally to this study
Background: Preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disease (PGT-M) has become an effective method for providing couples with the opportunity of a pregnancy with a baby free of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) overcomes the innate dilemma of very limited genetic material available for PGT-M.
Objective: To evaluate the use of MDA, combined with haplotype analysis and mutation amplification, in PGT-M for families with SMA.
Methods: MDA was used to amplify the whole genome from single blastomeres or trophectoderm (TE) cells. Exon 7 of the survival motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1) and eleven STRs markers flanking the SMN1 gene were incorporated into singleplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on MDA products.
Results: Sixteen cycles (19 ovum pick-up cycles) of PGT-M were initiated in 12 couples. A total of 141 embryos were tested: 90 embryos were biopsied at the cleavage stage and 51 embryos were biopsied at the blastocyst stage. MDA was successful on 94.44% (85/90) of the single blastomeres and on 92.16% (47/51) of the TE cells. And the PCR efficiency were 98.4% (561/570) and 100% (182/182), respectively. In addition, the average allele drop-out (ADO) rates were 13.3% (60/392) and 9.8% (11/112), respectively. The results for SMN1 exon 7 were all matched with haplotype analysis, which allowed an accurate diagnosis of 93.62% (132/141) embryos. Twelve families had unaffected embryos available for transfer and a total of 38 embryos were transferred in 20 embryo transfer cycles. Eight transfers were successful, resulting in a clinical pregnancy rate of 40% (8/20) and an implantation rate of 28.95% (11/38). Finally, 11 healthy babies were born. Among them, 5 SMA carriers were singleton live births and 3 SMA carriers had twin births.
Conclusion: Careful handling during the MDA procedure can improve subsequent PCR efficiency and reduce the ADO rate. We suggest that this protocol is reliable for increasing the accuracy of the PGT-M for SMA.
Keywords: Multiple displacement amplification, haplotype analysis, Spinal muscular atrophy, preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disease