1. Institute of Nervous System Diseases, Xuzhou Medical University, 84 West Huai-Hai Road, Xuzhou 221002, Jiangsu, China;
2. Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, 99 West Huai-Hai Road, Xuzhou 221002, Jiangsu, China;
3. Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, 32 Mei-Jian Road, Xuzhou 221006, Jiangsu, China.
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Background: CAPON has two isoforms in human brain: long form of CAPON (CAPON-L) and short form of CAPON (CAPON-S). Recent studies have indicated the involvement of CAPON in tumor cell growth. We aimed to reveal the role of the two CAPON isoforms in the proliferation of glioma cells in this study.
Materials and Methods: Lentivirus-mediated stable cell lines with CAPON-L or CAPON-S overexpression were established in U87 and U251 glioma cells. Cell counting kit-8 and colony formation assays were used to evaluate cell proliferation. Western blot analysis of cell cycle-related proteins and flow cytometry were performed to analyze cell cycle progression. Some important molecules of the AKT/mTOR pathway and P53 were also measured by Western blot analysis.
Results: Overexpression of CAPON-L showed a significantly inhibitory role in U251 cells, while it exhibited a promoting role in U87 cells. Consistently, overexpressing CAPON-L impeded the cell cycle progression and down-regulated the expression levels of Cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 in U251 cells, whereas it up-regulated the CDK6 level in U87 cells. The overexpression of CAPON-L significantly decreased the phosphorylation and/or total levels of AKT, mTOR and S6 in U251 cells, while it did not affect these signaling molecules in U87 cells, except for a significant increase in the phosphorylation of AKT at Thr-308 site. Transfecting constitutively active AKT (myr-AKT) partially reversed the decreased phosphorylation of AKT and S6 in the CAPON-L-overexpressing U251 cells. In addition, we found a significant decrease in the wild-type P53 level in the CAPON-L-overexpressing U87 cells. The overexpression of CAPON-S also inhibited cell proliferation, blocked cell cycle progression, and decreased the AKT/mTOR pathway activity in U251 cells.
Conclusion: The effects of CAPON-L overexpression on glioma cell proliferation are dependent on the AKT/mTOR/P53 activity. The overexpression of CAPON inhibits U251 cell proliferation through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, while overexpressing CAPON-L promoted U87 cell proliferation, possibly through down-regulating the P53 level.
Keywords: NOS1AP, U87, U251, cell cycle