1. Department of Urology, HELIOS Hospital, Bad Saarow, Germany;
2. Department of Urology, Lukaskrankenhaus Neuss, Germany;
3. Uropraxis Dr. Hohmuth, Ulm, Germany;
4. University Hospital for Urology, Klinikum Oldenburg, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Germany.
Introduction: This study addresses minimally invasive anesthesiologic and analgetic approaches for stone surgery in the upper urinary tract. Aim of this retrospective analysis is to compare feasibility, safety and complication rates of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) under local infiltration anesthesia alone (Group I) and additive intravenous analgetics and/or sedative medications (Group II).
Material and Methods: This is a single center study. A total of 439 patients have been included from November 2003 until March 2012. A total of 226 patients were assigned to Group I receiving local infiltration anesthesia alone, whereas 213 patients were assigned to Group II receiving additive intravenous analgetics and/or sedative medications. Demographic characteristics and stone characteristics have been evaluated to determine feasibility, complication rates for safety, and stone-free rates for effectiveness. The study and the reported technique have then been retrospectively analysed according to the IDEAL stages of surgical innovation.
Results: All included patients who accepted local infiltration anesthesia underwent PCNL successfully. The mean American Society of Anesthesiologists score (ASA) of the included patients was 2.15 ±0.37 (range, 1-4). PCNL was indicated in 138 patients due to pelvic calculi, in 171 patients due to renal calculi, in 66 patients due to partial staghorn, in 48 patients due to complete staghorn and in 16 patients due to upper ureteral stones. The total stone free rate in our patients was 78.4% over all stone localizations. Compared to the possibility of using additive intravenous analgetics and/or sedative medications we could show differences in the median age (p=0.005) suggesting that older patients did better tolerate the infiltration anesthesia than patients at younger ages. We did also remark not statistically significant differences in Group I and Group II as for number of tracts, operation duration, hemoglobin drop, fever, transfusion rate, and stone free rate, but not for severe complications such as perirenal hematoma, colon perforation, pleura perforation, AV fistula, skin fistula, and mortality rate.
Conclusion: PCNL performed under local infiltration anesthesia is a feasible method. It provides satisfactory positive clinical outcomes. Younger age seems to predispose to conversion to extended anesthesiologic procedures. When retrospectively applying the IDEAL criteria, the method can be assigned to the E level or stage 2b.
Keywords: complication, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, local anesthesia, IDEAL.