Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(9):1217-1223. doi:10.7150/ijms.6054 This issue
1. Department of Hospital Pathology, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea
2. Department of Pathology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea
3. Department of Hospital Pathology, Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea
Objectives: Tumor hypoxia confers poor prognosis of a wide range of solid tumors due to increased malignancy, increased likelihood of metastasis and treatment resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of the expression of HIF-1α and HIF-1α-inducible proteins in gastric cancer and their impact on prognosis. Materials and Methods: The expression of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, CA-9, and iNOS proteins was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 193 gastric adenocarcinomas (GAs) and 20 normal gastric mucosa. Results: HIF-1α, GLUT-1, CA-9 and iNOS were expressed in 52.3%, 43.0%, 57.0%, and 43.0% of GAs, respectively, which are higher than the normal counterparts except for CA-9. HIF-1α expression was positively correlated with the expression of GLUT-1, CA-9 and iNOS. GLUT-1 expression was higher in the intestinal type (p = 0.012); however, iNOS expression was higher in the less-differentiated type and the diffuse type (p = 0.006, p = 0.032, respectively). The expression of HIF-1α and GLUT-1 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.009, p = 0.008, respectively), while the expression of GLUT-1 and iNOS was significantly correlated with the depth of invasion and advanced stage (p = 0.044, p = 0.004; p = 0.009, p = 0.008, respectively). Overall survival was shorter in patients with GLUT-1 expression than in those without GLUT-1 expression, which was statistically significant by univariate analysis (p = 0.042). On multivariate analysis, however, stage was determined as the only independent prognostic marker (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our data suggest that overexpression of HIF-1α, GLUT-1, and iNOS may play an important role in gastric cancer progression. GLUT-1 is a potential candidate for predicting patient survival.
Keywords: Gastric cancer, hypoxia, HIF-1α, GLUT-1, CA-9, iNOS