1. Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
2. Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan
3. Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan
4. Laboratory for Epidemiology, Department of Health Care Management, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
5. Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
6. Department of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan
Background: Scarce data are available on hemoglobin and platelet in relation to coronary artery spasm (CAS) development. We sought to determine the roles that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hemoglobin and platelet play in CAS patients.
Methods: Patients (337 women and 532 men) undergoing coronary angiography with or without CAS but without obstructive coronary artery disease were evaluated during a 12-year period.
Results: Among women with high hemoglobin levels, the odds ratios (OR) from the lowest (<1 mg/l) to the highest tertiles (>3 mg/l) of hs-CRP were 1.21, 2.15, and 5.93 (p=0.009). In women with low hemoglobin levels, an elevated risk was found from the middle to the highest tertiles of hs-CRP (OR 0.59 to 3.85) (p=0.004). This relationship was not observed in men. In men, platelet count was the most significant risk factor for CAS (p=0.004). The highest likelihood of developing CAS was found among women with the highest hs-CRP tertile and low platelet counts (OR 8.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.20-35.01) and among men with the highest hs-CRP tertile and high platelet counts (OR 4.58; 95% CI 0.48-43.97). Neither hemoglobin level nor platelet count was associated with frequent recurrent angina in both genders with CAS whereas death and myocardial infarction were rare.
Conclusions: There are positive interactions among hs-CRP, hemoglobin and platelet in women with this disease, but not in men. While hemoglobin is a modifier in CAS development in women, platelet count is an independent risk factor for men. Both women and men have good prognosis of CAS.
Keywords: gender, hemoglobin, platelets, C-reactive protein, coronary spasm