Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences of China Medical University, 110001, Shenyang, China.
Hes3 is a basic helix-loop-helix factor gene, which was found to be involved in neural cell differentiation. Expression and clinicopathological significance of Hes3 in non-small cell lung cancer was not clear. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine Hes3 expression in normal human lung and non-small cell lung cancer tissues. Hes3 expression was detected in cytoplasm and nucleus. Hes3 expression in bronchial epithelial cells and epithelial cells of submucosal glands was relatively weak and the positive rate was of 30.3% (10/33). Hes3 expression in non-small cell lung cancer tissues (51.8% (58/112)) was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissues (p < 0.05). Hes3 expression in cancer tissues was significantly associated with poor differentiation, advanced TNM stages, lymph node metastasis, and a shorter patient survival time (p < 0.05). In vitro study showed that overexpression of Hes3 in A549 cells significantly promoted cancer cell proliferation and invasion, while inhibition of Hes3 expression significantly downregulated cancer cell proliferation and invasion (p < 0.05). Western blotting showed that overexpression of Hes3 significantly upregulated expression of Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, and MMP7 in A549 cells, while inhibition of Hes3 expression in LK2 cells significantly downregulated the expression of these molecules (p < 0.05). These results indicated that Hes3 may contribute to the malignant phenotype of non-small cell lung cancer, possibly through regulation of Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, and MMP7, and may be a promising cancer marker.
Keywords: Hes3, NSCLC, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, MMP7