Int J Med Sci 2023; 20(6):737-748. doi:10.7150/ijms.78766 This issue Cite
1. Department of Respiratory Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.
2. Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases (Ministry of Education), Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Department of Infectious Diseases, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.
3. Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.
4. Department of General Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.
#Co-first authors: Lei Yang and LingFang Xu
Purpose: The effectiveness of inactivated vaccines against acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has become a global concern. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate vaccine safety and to assess immune responses in individuals with chronic respiratory disease (CRD) following a two-dose vaccination.
Methods: The study cohort included 191 participants (112 adult CRD patients and 79 healthy controls [HCs]) at least 21 (range, 21-159) days after a second vaccination. Frequencies of memory B cells (MBCs) subsets and titers of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG antibodies (Abs) were analyzed.
Results: As compared to the HCs, CRD patients had lower seropositivity rates and titers of both anti-RBD IgG Abs and NAbs, in addition to lower frequencies of RBD-specific MBCs (all, p < 0.05). At 3 months, CRD patients had lower seropositivity rates and titers of anti-RBD IgG Abs than the HCs (p < 0.05). For CoronaVac, the seropositivity rates of both Abs were lower in patients with old pulmonary tuberculosis than HCs. For BBIBP-CorV, the seropositivity rates of CoV-2 NAbs were lower in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than HCs (all, p < 0.05). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in overall adverse events between the CRD patients and HCs. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the time interval following a second vaccination as a risk factor for the production of anti-RBD IgG Abs and CoV-2 NAbs, while the CoronaVac had a positive effect on the titers of both Abs. Female was identified as a protective factor for CoV-2 NAb levels.
Conclusion: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines were safe and well tolerated by CRD patients but resulted in lower Ab responses and the frequencies of RBD-specific MBCs. Therefore, CRD patients should be prioritized for booster vaccinations.