Int J Med Sci 2022; 19(5):932-940. doi:10.7150/ijms.72497 This issue

Research Paper

HAT2CH2 score performance predicting neurologic events after cardiac implantable electronic device

Ju-Yi Chen, MD, PhD, Tse-Wei Chen, MD, Wei-Da Lu, MD

Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

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Chen JY, Chen TW, Lu WD. HAT2CH2 score performance predicting neurologic events after cardiac implantable electronic device. Int J Med Sci 2022; 19(5):932-940. doi:10.7150/ijms.72497. Available from

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Graphic abstract

Objectives: The HAT2CH2 score has been evaluated for predicting new-onset atrial fibrillation in several clinical conditions, but never for adverse neurologic events. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of HAT2CH2 score in predicting neurologic events in patients with cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED), comparing with atrial high-rate episodes (AHRE).

Methods: This case-control study enrolled 314 consecutive patients aged 18 years or older with CIED implantation between January 2015 and April 2021. Patient data were analyzed retrospectively. The primary endpoint was subsequent neurologic events (NE) after implantation. AHRE was defined as > 175 bpm (Medtronic®) lasting ≥ 30 seconds. Variables associated with independent risk of NE were identified using multivariate Cox regression analysis with time-dependent covariates.

Results: Patients' median age was 73 years and 61.8% of them were male. During follow-up (median 32 months), 18 NE occurred (incidence rate 2.15/100 patient-years, 95% CI 1.32-4.30). Multiple Cox regression analysis showed that the HAT2CH2 score (HR 2.424, 95% CI 1.683 - 3.492, p < 0.001) was an independent predictor for NE. Optimal HAT2CH2 score cutoff value was 3 with highest Youden index (AUC, 0.923; 95% CI, 0.881-0.966; p < 0.001). Both AHRE ≥ 1 minute and HAT2CH2 score ≥ 3 had the highest AUC of the receiver-operating characteristic (0.898, 95% CI, 0.831-0.965, p < 0.001). Significant increase was observed in NE occurrence rates using the HAT2CH2 score (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The HAT2CH2 score and episodes of AHRE lasting ≥ 1 minute are independent risk factors for NE in patients with CIED.

Keywords: Atrial high-rate episodes, cardiac implantable electronic device, HAT2CH2 score, neurologic events