Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(16):3697-3707. doi:10.7150/ijms.61080 This issue


The Role of the Immune Microenvironment in Bone Regeneration

Ning Yang1,2, Yao Liu1,2✉

1. Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School and Hospital of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.
2. Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Shenyang, China.

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Yang N, Liu Y. The Role of the Immune Microenvironment in Bone Regeneration. Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(16):3697-3707. doi:10.7150/ijms.61080. Available from

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Graphic abstract

Bone is an active tissue, being constantly renewed in healthy individuals with participation of the immune system to a large extent. Any imbalance between the processes of bone formation and bone resorption is linked to various inflammatory bone diseases. The immune system plays an important role in tissue formation and bone resorption. Recently, many studies have demonstrated complex interactions between the immune and skeletal systems. Both of immune cells and cytokines contribute to the regulation of bone homeostasis, and bone cells, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, also influence the cellular functions of immune cells. These crosstalk mechanisms between the bone and immune system finally emerged, forming a new field of research called osteoimmunology. Therefore, the immune microenvironment is crucial in determining the speed and outcome of bone healing, repair, and regeneration. In this review, we summarise the role of the immune microenvironment in bone regeneration from the aspects of immune cells and immune cytokines. The elucidation of immune mechanisms involved in the process of bone regeneration would provide new therapeutic targets for improving the curative effects of bone injury treatment.

Keywords: immune microenvironment, bone regeneration, immune cell, immune cytokine, osteoimmunology