Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(7):1554-1565. doi:10.7150/ijms.52846 This issue

Research Paper

Identification of key genes and pathways in scleral extracellular matrix remodeling in glaucoma: Potential therapeutic agents discovered using bioinformatics analysis

Di Hu, MD1*, Junhong Jiang, MD2*, Zhong Lin, MD, PhD2, Cong Zhang, MD2, Nived Moonasar, MBBS, MS3, Shaohong Qian, Prof, MD1✉

1. Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, Eye and ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
2. The Eye Hospital, School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.
3. Caribbean Eye Institute, Valsayn, Trinidad and Tobago.
*These authors contributed equally to this work.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( See for full terms and conditions.
Hu D, Jiang J, Lin Z, Zhang C, Moonasar N, Qian S. Identification of key genes and pathways in scleral extracellular matrix remodeling in glaucoma: Potential therapeutic agents discovered using bioinformatics analysis. Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(7):1554-1565. doi:10.7150/ijms.52846. Available from

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Graphic abstract

Background: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Remodeling of the scleral extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the development of glaucoma. The aim of this study was to identify the key genes and pathways for the ECM remodeling of sclera in glaucoma by bioinformatics analysis and to explore potential therapeutic agents for glaucoma management.

Methods: Genes associated with glaucoma, sclera and ECM remodeling were detected using the text mining tool pubmed2ensembl, and assigned Gene Ontology (GO) biological process terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways using the GeneCodis program. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by STRING and visualized in Cytoscape, module analysis was performed using the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plugin, and GO and KEGG analyses of the gene modules were performed using the Database of Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) platform. The genes that clustered in the significant module were selected as core genes, and functions and pathways of the core genes were visualized using ClueGO and CluePedia. Lastly, the drug-gene interaction database was used to explore drug-gene interactions of the core genes to find drug candidates for glaucoma.

Results: We identified 125 genes common to “Glaucoma”, “Sclera”, and “ECM remodeling” by text mining. Gene functional enrichment analysis yielded 30 enriched GO terms and 20 associated KEGG pathways. A PPI network that included 60 nodes with 249 edges was constructed, and three gene modules were obtained using the MCODE. We selected 13 genes that clustered in module 1 as core candidate genes that were associated mainly with ECM degradation and cell proliferation and division. The HIF-1 signaling pathway, FOXO signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and TGFB signaling pathway were found to be enriched. We found that 11 of the 13 selected genes could be targeted by 26 existing drugs.

Conclusions: The results showed that VEGFA, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, IGF2, IGF1, EGF, FN1, KNG1, TIMP1, SERPINE1, THBS1, and VWF were potential key genes involved to scleral ECM remodeling. Furthermore, 26 drugs were identified as potential therapeutic agents for glaucoma treatment and management.

Keywords: glaucoma, sclera, extracellular matrix, text mining, drug discovery