Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(4):944-952. doi:10.7150/ijms.50275 This issue

Review

Endovascular treatment of blunt injury of the extracranial internal carotid artery: the prospect and dilemma

Guangming Wang1*, Chao Li2*, Jianmin Piao1, Baofeng Xu1, Jinlu Yu1✉

1. Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, China
2. Department of Neurology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, China
*Guangming Wang and Chao Li contributed equally to this work.

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Citation:
Wang G, Li C, Piao J, Xu B, Yu J. Endovascular treatment of blunt injury of the extracranial internal carotid artery: the prospect and dilemma. Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(4):944-952. doi:10.7150/ijms.50275. Available from https://www.medsci.org/v18p0944.htm

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Abstract

The extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) refers to the anatomic location that reaches from the common carotid artery proximally to the skull base distally. The extracranial ICA belongs to the C1 segment of the Bouthillier classification and is at considerable risk for injury. Currently, the understanding of endovascular treatment (EVT) for blunt injury of the extracranial ICA is limited, and a comprehensive review is therefore important. In this review, we found that extracranial ICA blunt injury should be identified in patients presenting after blunt trauma, including classical dissection, pseudoaneurysm, and stenosis/occlusion. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the first-line method for screening for extracranial ICA blunt injury, although digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the “gold standard” in imaging. Antithrombotic treatment is effective for stroke prevention. However, routine EVT in the form of stenting should be reserved for patients with prolonged neurological symptoms from arterial stenosis or considerably enlarged pseudoaneurysm. Endovascular repair is now emerging as a favored therapeutic option given its demonstrated safety and positive clinical and radiographic outcomes.

Keywords: endovascular treatment, blunt injury, extracranial internal carotid artery