1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Japan.
2. Research Laboratories, Nichinichi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Iga, Japan.
3. Department of Forensic Medicine and Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Mie University, Tsu, Japan.
Diabetes induces dry skin that may cause infective diseases. In this study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism of diabetes-induced skin dryness in animal models. We also examined the difference in the mechanism of skin dryness in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We examined skin dryness in type 1 diabetes model mice (streptozotocin [STZ] induction), non-obesity type 2 diabetes model mice (newborn STZ injection), and obesity type 2 diabetes model mice (KK-Ay/TaJcl). An increase in transepidermal water loss was observed in the type 1 diabetes model mice, and reduced skin hydration was observed in the type 2 diabetes model mice. In the type 1 diabetes model mice, an increase in advanced glycation end products and matrix metalloproteinase-9 led to a decline in collagen IV level, inducing skin dryness. In the obesity type 2 diabetes model mice, an increase in the release of histamine and hyaluronidase by mast cells resulted in a decline in the level of hyaluronic acid, inducing skin dryness. However, in the non-obesity type 2 diabetes model mice, the main factors of skin dryness could not be clearly identified. Nevertheless, inflammatory cytokine levels increased. We hypothesize that inflammatory cytokines disrupt the collagen of the skin. Diabetes caused skin dryness in each mouse model, and the mechanism of skin dryness differed by diabetes type.
Keywords: Diabetes, STZ, KK-Ay/TaJcl mice, Skin dryness, Collagen, Hyaluronic acid