Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(5):665-674. doi:10.7150/ijms.32971 This issue

Research Paper

Risk Factors of Intraoperative Dysglycemia in Elderly Surgical Patients

Cornelia Knaak1, Tobias Wollersheim1,2, Rudolf Mörgeli1, Claudia Spies1✉, Gerald Vorderwülbecke1, Victoria Windmann1, Sophia Kuenz1, Maryam Kurpanik1, Gunnar Lachmann1,2 on behalf of the BIOCOG Consortium

1. Department of Anesthesiology and Operative Intensive Care Medicine (CCM, CVK), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin, Germany
2. Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Anna-Louisa-Karsch-Str. 2, D-10178 Berlin, Germany

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Knaak C, Wollersheim T, Mörgeli R, Spies C, Vorderwülbecke G, Windmann V, Kuenz S, Kurpanik M, Lachmann G. Risk Factors of Intraoperative Dysglycemia in Elderly Surgical Patients. Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(5):665-674. doi:10.7150/ijms.32971. Available from

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BACKGROUNDː Dysglycemia is associated with adverse outcome including increased morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Acute insulin resistance due to the surgical stress response is seen as a major cause of so-called stress hyperglycemia. However, understanding of factors determining blood glucose (BG) during surgery is limited. Therefore, we investigated risk factors contributing to intraoperative dysglycemia.

METHODSː In this subgroup investigation of the BIOCOG study, we analyzed 87 patients of ≥ 65 years with tight intraoperative BG measurement every 20 min during elective surgery. Dysglycemia was defined as at least one intraoperative BG measurement outside the recommended target range of 80-150 mg/dL. Additionally, all postoperative BG measurements in the ICU were obtained. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, diabetes, type and duration of surgery, minimum Hemoglobin (Hb) and mean intraoperative norepinephrine use was performed to identify risk factors of intraoperative dysglycemia.

RESULTSː 46 (52.9%) out of 87 patients developed intraoperative dysglycemia. 31.8% of all intraoperative BG measurements were detected outside the target range. Diabetes [OR 9.263 (95% CI 2.492, 34.433); p=0.001] and duration of surgery [OR 1.005 (1.000, 1.010); p=0.036] were independently associated with the development of intraoperative dysglycemia. Patients who experienced intraoperative dysglycemia had significantly elevated postoperative mean (p<0.001) and maximum BG levels (p=0.001). Length of ICU (p=0.007) as well as hospital stay (p=0.012) were longer in patients with dysglycemia.

CONCLUSIONSː Diabetes and duration of surgery were confirmed as independent risk factors for intraoperative dysglycemia, which was associated with adverse outcome. These patients, therefore, might require intensified glycemic control. Increased awareness and management of intraoperative dysglycemia is warranted.

Keywords: Intraoperative dysglycemia, hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, diabetes, risk factors, time-in-target range