Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(2):324-330. doi:10.7150/ijms.27757 This issue
Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110001, China
Background: Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes plays important role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, SPRED1, a negative regulator of the RAS MAPK pathway, is identified as a tumour suppressor downregulated in AML. However, little is known regarding its underlying dysregulation in AML. In this study, we investigated methylation status of SPRED1 promoters and their association with mRNA levels in AML.
Methods: Methylation level were measured in four regions of SPRED1 (#1: 310 bp ~ 723 bp, #2: 810 bp ~ 1299 bp, #3: 1280 bp ~ 1742 bp and #4: 1715 bp ~ 2059 bp) in a total of 16 patients with de novonon-acute promyelocytic leukemia (non-APL) and three patients who got complete remission after induction treatment using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT PCR) was used to analyze SPRED1 mRNA levels.
Results: AML patients had a significantly higher average methylation level than controls at regions of #1_CpG_1 (p= 0.04) and #1_CpG_11 (p =0.002). The methylation values for #1_CpG_11 were negatively correlated with mRNA levels (r= -0.558, p=0.013) but there was no significant association between #1_CpG_1 methylation status and mRNA levels (r=-0.103, p=0.675) in AML patients. There was no significant difference in the methylation level when comparing with clinical biochemical parameters and treatment response (p>0.05). Mutations of epigenetic regulation genes such as DNMT3A, TET2 and IDH1/2 were most frequently observed in patients with higher methylation levels. Decreased methylation levels were revealed in three patients who got complete remission.
Conclusions: Aberrant methylation statuses of the SPRED1 promoter regions are associated with the downregulation of gene transcription in AML. The methylation level is probably associated with the treatment response of AML. Mutations of epigenetic regulation genes might be involved in the epigenetic aberration of SPRED1.
Keywords: SPRED1, DNA methylation, AML, Tumor suppressor gene