1. Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China
2. Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China
3. Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong, China
4. Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Central Laboratory, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China
5. Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Pathology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Retroperitoneal liposarcoma (RLPS) is one of the most common subtypes of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas. It is characterized by poor sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and a low success rate of complete surgical resection. However, there are few reliable preclinical RLPS models for target discovery and therapy research. In this study, we aimed to establish RLPS patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models that are useful for biological research and preclinical drug trials. A total of 56 freshly resected RLPS tissues were subcutaneously transplanted into non-obese diabetic-severe combined immune deficient (NOD-SCID) mice, with subsequent xenotransplantation into second-generation mice. The tumor engraftment rate of first generation PDXs was 44.64%, and higher success rates were obtained from implantations of dedifferentiated, myxous, pleomorphic, high-grade liposarcomas and those with retroperitoneal organ infiltration. The first- and second- generation PDX models preserved the histopathological morphology, gene mutation profiles and MDM2 amplification of the primary tissues. PDX models can also provide the benefit of retaining original tumor biology and microenvironment characteristics, such as abnormal adipose differentiation, elevated Ki67 levels, high microvessel density, cancer-associated fibroblast presence, and tumor-associated macrophage infiltration. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with successful first-generation PDX engraftment were significantly poorer than those with failed engraftment. Treatment with MDM2 inhibitor RG7112 significantly suppressed tumor growth of DDLPS PDX in mice. In conclusion, we successfully established RLPS PDX models that were histologically, genetically, and molecularly consistent with the original tissues. These models might provide opportunities for advancing RLPS tumor biology research, facilitating the development of novel drugs, particularly those targeting MDM2 amplification, adipose differentiation process, angiogenesis, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and so on.
Keywords: Retroperitoneal liposarcoma, patient-derived xenograft (PDX), prognosis, treatment evaluation, tumor biology research