Int J Med Sci 2022; 19(2):205-212. doi:10.7150/ijms.65364 This issue

Research Paper

Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy for pancreatic cancer detection during endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy: a prospective cohort study

Labrinus van Manen1*, Iris Schmidt2*, Akin Inderson3, Ruben D. Houvast1, Jurjen J. Boonstra3, Jouke Dijkstra4, Jeanin E. van Hooft3, Wouter B. Nagengast2, Dominic J. Robinson5, Alexander L. Vahrmeijer1, J. Sven D. Mieog1✉

1. Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
2. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
3. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
4. Division of Image Processing, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
5. Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Center for Optical Diagnostics and Therapy, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
* These authors contributed equally.

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Citation:
van Manen L, Schmidt I, Inderson A, Houvast RD, Boonstra JJ, Dijkstra J, van Hooft JE, Nagengast WB, Robinson DJ, Vahrmeijer AL, Mieog JSD. Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy for pancreatic cancer detection during endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy: a prospective cohort study. Int J Med Sci 2022; 19(2):205-212. doi:10.7150/ijms.65364. Available from https://www.medsci.org/v19p0205.htm

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Abstract

Graphic abstract

This study aimed to determine the ability of single fiber reflectance (SFR) spectroscopy incorporated in endoscopic ultrasound fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) procedures in the pancreas to distinguish benign and malignant pancreatic tissue in patient with pancreatic masses suspected for malignancy.

Methods: This study was designed as a prospective observational single center study and included consecutive adult patients, who were scheduled for EUS-FNB of a solid pancreatic mass suspected for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In total, seven optical parameters, derived from the absorption acquired spectra, were analyzed: blood volume fraction (BVF), microvascular saturation, average vessel diameter, bilirubin concentration (BIL), Mie amplitude, Mie slope and Rayleigh amplitude.

Results: Forty-five patients with a suspicious pancreatic lesion undergoing EUS-FNB were included, of which most of the patients (N=34) were ultimately diagnosed with PDAC. Finally, 27 out of 45 (60.0%) patients were used for the final analysis of the optical parameters. The median (IQR) BVF differed significantly in benign compared to malignant tissue (0.86 [0.30-2.03] and 4.49 [1.28-15.47]; p=0.046). Combining BVF and BIL to a new parameter (θ) improved the discrimination between PDAC and benign pancreatic tissue (p=0.026). The area under the curve of θ was 0.84, resulting in a 92.8%, 75.0%, 97.5%, 50.0% and 91.3% sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy for detection of PDAC.

Conclusion: Differentiation between PDAC and benign pancreatic tissue using SFR spectroscopy during EUS-FNB procedures is promising. Future work should focus on comparing the diagnostic performance combining SFR spectroscopy with EUS-FNB and EUS-FNB alone.

Keywords: pancreatic cancer, diagnosis, spectroscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, fine needle biopsy.