Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(4):1024-1029. doi:10.7150/ijms.46421 This issue


PM2.5-related cell death patterns

Yunxia Wang1, Yijue Zhong2, Jiping Liao1, Guangfa Wang1✉

1. Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.
2. Department of Geriatrics, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

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Wang Y, Zhong Y, Liao J, Wang G. PM2.5-related cell death patterns. Int J Med Sci 2021; 18(4):1024-1029. doi:10.7150/ijms.46421. Available from

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With the increasingly serious problem of environmental pollution, the health problems caused by PM2.5 are gradually coming into our line of sight. Previous researches have indicated that air pollution is nearly related to various diseases, but few studies have focused on the exact function mediated by particulate matter less than 2.5 (PM2.5) in these diseases. PM2.5 is known to induce multiple ways of cell death, including autophagy, necrosis, apoptosis, pyroptosis and ferroptosis. Therefore, it is of much importance to understand the different ways of cell death caused by PM2.5 in the pathogenesis and treatment of PM2.5-related diseases. This present review is an insight of multiple ways of PM2.5‑induced cell death in different diseases.