Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(17):2603-2610. doi:10.7150/ijms.49244 This issue

Research Paper

IL-17C expression and its correlation with pediatric adenoids: a preliminary study

Hyun Jin Min, Kyung Soo Kim

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( See for full terms and conditions.
Min HJ, Kim KS. IL-17C expression and its correlation with pediatric adenoids: a preliminary study. Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(17):2603-2610. doi:10.7150/ijms.49244. Available from

File import instruction


Objective: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) C is a cytokine expressed by epithelial cells in response to bacterial stimulation. In contrast to other members of the IL-17 family of cytokines, IL-17C is upregulated early during infection, maintains integrity of the epithelial layer barrier, and mediates the innate immune response. We investigated the expression profile of IL-17C in pediatric adenoids.

Methods: Pediatric adenoid tissues and lavage fluids were collected from a total of 38 subjects. The Limulus amebocyte lysate test and real-time PCR using Staphylococcus aureus primers were performed to evaluate bacterial contents in adenoids. Expression of IL-17RE in adenoids was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The expression of IL-17C was evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry and compared between allergic rhinitis (AR) and control subjects. The levels of Hsp27, Hsp70, and IL-17C in adenoid lavage fluids were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the correlation between these molecules was statistically analyzed.

Results: The pediatric adenoids were found to be exposed to bacteria and had a normal flora comprising both gram-negative and -positive bacteria. IL-17RE, an IL-17C specific receptor, was highly expressed in the epithelium of adenoids. IL-17C was expressed in all evaluated adenoid tissue samples, irrespective of the allergic status of the patient. IL-17C secretion was detected in half of the adenoid lavage fluid samples and was associated with Hsp70 level.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate the possible role of pediatric adenoids in innate immunity modulation via an innate immunity-associated cytokine.

Keywords: adenoids, IL-17C, IL-17RE, Hsp70, innate immunity