Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(16):2402-2415. doi:10.7150/ijms.48128 This issue
Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No.74, Linjiang Rd, Yuzhong Dist, Chongqing 404100, China.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most prevalent autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) worldwide and is strongly associated with miscarriage and even recurrent miscarriage (RM). Moreover, with a deepening understanding, emerging evidence has shown that immune dysfunctions caused by HT conditions, including imbalanced subsets of CD4+ T-helper cells, B regulatory (Breg) cells, high expression levels of CD56dim natural killer (NK) cells, and cytokines, possibly play an important role in impairing maternal tolerance to the fetus. In recent years, unprecedented progress has been made in recognizing the specific changes in immune cells and molecules in patients with HT, which will be helpful in exploring the mechanism of HT-related miscarriage. Based on these findings, research investigating some potentially more effective treatments, such as selenium (Se), vitamin D3, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), has been well developed over the past few years. In this review, we highlight some of the latest advances in the possible immunological pathogenesis of HT-related miscarriage and focus on the efficacies of treatments that have been widely introduced to clinical trials or practice described in the most recent literature.
Keywords: Hashimoto's thyroiditis, autoimmune disease, miscarriage, immune system, intravenous immunoglobulin, levothyroxine