1. Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.
2. Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.
*These authors have equally contributed to this article as co-first authors.
Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is considered as the most common form of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy with a high mortality worldwide. Cytoskeleton protein Cypher plays an important role in maintaining cardiac function. Genetic studies in human and animal models revealed that Cypher is involved in the development of DCM. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Accumulating evidences suggest that apoptosis in myocytes may contribute to DCM. Thus, the purpose of this study is to define whether lack of Cypher in cardiomyocytes can elevate apoptosis signaling and lead to DCM eventually.
Methods and Results: Cypher-siRNA sufficiently inhibited Cypher expression in cardiomyocytes. TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes were increased in both Cypher knockdown neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and Cypher knockout mice hearts, which were rare in the control group. Flow cytometry further confirmed that downregulation of Cypher significantly increased myocytes apoptosis in vitro. Cell counting kit-8 assay revealed that Cypher knockdown in H9c2 cells significantly reduced cell viability. Cypher knockdown was found to increase cleaved caspase-3 expression and suppress p21, ratio of bcl-2 to Bax. Cypher-deficiency induced apoptosis was linked to downregulation of Akt activation and elevated p-p38 MAPK accumulation. Pharmacological activation of Akt with SC79 attenuated apoptosis with enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and reduced p-p38 MAPK and Bax expression.
Conclusions: Downregulation of Cypher participates in the promotion of cardiomyocytes apoptosis through inhibiting Akt dependent pathway and enhancing p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These findings may provide a new potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DCM.
Keywords: apoptosis, Cypher, dilated cardiomyopathy, Akt, p38 MAPK