Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(15):2269-2275. doi:10.7150/ijms.46165 This issue

Research Paper

Pictorial Imaging-Histopathology Correlation in a Rabbit with Hepatic VX2 Tumor Treated by Transarterial Vascular Disrupting Agent Administration

Jintong He1*, Chong Liu1*, Tian Li1, Yewei Liu2,3, Shuncong Wang3, Jian Zhang4, Lei Chen3, Chao Wang5, Yuanbo Feng3, Giuseppe Floris3, Zhiqiang Wang5, Xian Zhang5, Liwen Zhao5, Yue Li2✉, Haibo Shao1✉, Yicheng Ni3✉

1. Department of Interventional Radiology, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
2. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai 201318, China
3. KU Leuven, Biomedical Group, Campus Gasthuisberg, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
4. Laboratory of Translational Medicine, Jiangsu Province Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210028, China
5. Nanjing Sanhome Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Nanjing 211135, China
* These authors contributed equally to this work.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( See for full terms and conditions.
He J, Liu C, Li T, Liu Y, Wang S, Zhang J, Chen L, Wang C, Feng Y, Floris G, Wang Z, Zhang X, Zhao L, Li Y, Shao H, Ni Y. Pictorial Imaging-Histopathology Correlation in a Rabbit with Hepatic VX2 Tumor Treated by Transarterial Vascular Disrupting Agent Administration. Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(15):2269-2275. doi:10.7150/ijms.46165. Available from

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Cancer vasculature is immature, disorganized and hyperpermeable and can serve as a target for anti-cancer therapies. Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) are tubulin protein binding and depolymerizing agents that induce rapid tumoral vascular shutdown and subsequent cancer necrosis. However, two clinical problems exist with all VDAs, i.e. 1) incomplete anticancer effect and 2) dose-dependent toxicity.

To tackle these problems, in our ongoing research, a novel VDA C118P is applied by transarterial administration of half the intravenous dose in rabbits with implanted VX2 liver tumor to assess its therapeutic efficacy.

Nearly complete tumor necrosis was achieved by only a single arterial dose of C118P at 5 mg/kg, which was documented in a representative case by in vivo digital subtraction arteriogram (DSA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and further confirmed by ex vivo microangiogram and histopathology.

This convincing and promising preliminary outcome would warrant further comprehensive studies to explore the potentials of VDAs by transarterial administration either in mono-drug or in combination for management of solid cancers.

Keywords: Cancer treatment, vascular disrupting agents (VDAs), C118P, Rabbit, VX2 carcinoma