Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(12):1704-1712. doi:10.7150/ijms.47073 This issue

Research Paper

A Novel Nomogram Predicting Distant Metastasis in T1 and T2 Gallbladder Cancer: A SEER-based Study

Yu-Long Cai, Yi-Xin Lin, Li-Sheng Jiang, Hui Ye, Fu-Yu Li, Nan-Sheng Cheng

Department of Biliary Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China.

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Cai YL, Lin YX, Jiang LS, Ye H, Li FY, Cheng NS. A Novel Nomogram Predicting Distant Metastasis in T1 and T2 Gallbladder Cancer: A SEER-based Study. Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(12):1704-1712. doi:10.7150/ijms.47073. Available from

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Background: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common malignancy of the biliary system. Early T stage GBC patients with distant metastasis are proven to have a worse prognosis. In this study, our aim was to construct and validate a novel nomogram for predicting distant metastasis in T1 and T2 GBC.

Methods: Between 2004 and 2014, patients with T1 and T2 GBC were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. All of the eligible patients were randomly divided into training and validation cohorts. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess significant predictive factors associated with distant metastasis. A nomogram was developed and validated by a calibration curve and receptor operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis.

Results: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 3013 patients with historically confirmed AJCC stage T1 and T2 GBC were enrolled. Younger age, high pathological grade, nonadenocarcinoma, T1, N1 and larger tumor size correlated positively with the risk of distant metastasis. A novel nomogram was established to predict distant metastasis in early T stage GBC patients. Internal validation with a calibration plot in the training cohort showed that this nomogram was well calibrated. Through ROC curve analysis, the areas under the ROC curves in the training and validation cohorts were 0.723 and 0.679, respectively.

Conclusions: Although some limitations exist in this predictive model, the nomogram revealed the relationship between the clinicopathological characteristics of T1 and T2 GBC patients and the risk of distant metastasis. The novel nomogram will assist in patient counseling and guide treatment decision making for T1 and T2 GBC patients.

Keywords: Nomogram, gallbladder cancer, SEER.