Int J Med Sci 2020; 17(6):720-727. doi:10.7150/ijms.42248 This issue
Department of Cardiology China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China 130033.
*Equal contributions and first authors.
In clinical cohort studies, high expression of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases 1 (ACSL1 gene) in peripheral white blood cells of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been utilized as molecular markers of myocardial infarction diagnosis. The plasma triglyceride level of AMI patients is significantly higher than that of healthy individuals. We hypothesized that the high expression of ACSL1 increases the level of triglyceride, which is one of the pathogenesis of AMI promoted by ACSL1. In this report, cell culture based methods were adopted to test the hypothesis and further investigate the effect and mechanism of ACSL1 on lipid metabolism. In this study, liver cells of healthy individuals were cultured, the overexpression and the knockdown vectors of ACSL1 were constructed and transfected into liver cells. The transfection was verified at the mRNA and protein level. Intracellular triglyceride content was quantitatively analyzed using ELISA. Changes of genes related to lipid metabolism were subsequently measured through PCR array. Overexpression of ACSL1 led to higher gene expression and protein levels compared to control and the triglyceride content was significantly increased in overexpressing cells. The expression level of fatty acid oxidation pathway PPARγ was significantly down-regulated compared with the control group, as were genes associated with fatty acid synthesis pathways: SREBP1, ACC, FAS, and SCD1. ACSL1 knockdown decreased the content of triglyceride whereas PPARγ was up-regulated and SREBP1, ACC, FAS, and SCD1 were down-regulated compared with the control group. In summary, high expression of ACSL1 reduced fatty acid β-oxidation through the PPARγ pathway, thereby increasing triglyceride levels.
Keywords: ACSL1, Triglyceride, Lipid Metabolism, Myocardium Infarction, PPARr