1. Division of Pediatric Neurology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan
2. Department of Food Nutrition and Health Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung City, Taiwan
3. Department of Neurosurgery, Asia University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan
4. Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan
#These two authors contributed equally.
Objective: The effects of pre-treatments from s-methyl cysteine (SMC) alone, syringic acid (SA) alone and SMC plus SA against kainic acid (KA) induced injury in nerve growth factor (NGF) differentiated PC12 cells were investigated.
Methods: NGF-differentiated PC12 cells were treated with 1 μM SMC, 1 μM SA or 0.5 μM SMC plus 0.5 μM SA for 2 days. Subsequently, cells were further treated by 150 μM KA.
Results: KA suppressed Bcl-2 mRNA expression, enhanced Bax mRNA expression and casued cell death. SMC was greater than SA, and similar as SMC+SA in increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression. SMC+SA led to greater increase in mitochondrial membrane potential and cell survival than SMC or SA alone. SMC+SA resulted in more reduction in reactive oxygen species and tumor necrosis factor-alpha generation, more increase in glutathione content and glutathione reductase activity than SMC or SA alone. KA up-regulated protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and phosphorylated p38 (p-p38). SMC or SA pre-treatments alone limited protein expression of both factors. SMC+SA resulted in more suppression in NF-κB p65 and p-p38 expression. KA decreased glutamine level, increased glutamate level and stimulated calcium release. SMC pre-treatments alone reversed these alterations. SMC alone elevated glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and mRNA expression. SMC+SA led to greater GS activity and mRNA expression than SMC pre-treatments alone.
Conclusion: These findings suggested that this combination, SMC+SA, might provide greater protective potent for neuronal cells.
Keywords: seizure, s-methyl cysteine, syringic acid, glutamine, calcium release, p38MAPK