Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(5):711-719. doi:10.7150/ijms.29934 This issue
1. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;
2. Metabolics Unit, Advanced Biotechnology and Breeding Centre (ABBC), Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.
The oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) from the family Arecaceae is a high oil-producing agricultural crop. A significant amount of vegetation liquor is discarded during the palm oil milling process amounting to 90 million tons per year around the world. This water-soluble extract is rich in phenolic compounds known as Oil Palm Phenolics (OPP). Several phenolic acids including the three isomers of caffeoylshikimic acid (CFA), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), protocatechuic acid (PCA) and hydroxytyrosol are among the primary active ingredients in the OPP. Previous investigations have reported several positive pharmacological potentials by OPP such as neuroprotective and atheroprotective effects, anti-tumor and reduction in Aβ deposition in Alzheimer's disease model. In the current review, the pharmacological potential for CFA, PHBA, PCA and hydroxytyrosol is carefully reviewed and evaluated.
Keywords: Caffeoylshikimic acid, Hydroxytyrosol, Oil palm phenolics, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, Protocatechuic acid, Shikimic acid