Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(1):17-22. doi:10.7150/ijms.28700 This issue
1. Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University. Hangzhou 310003, China
2. Urology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University. Hangzhou 310003, China
3. Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center Affiliated to Fudan University
Introduction: Most chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in China are primitively treated with a combination of lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV). Although antiviral resistance can be avoided with this combination therapy, using it can have harmful side effects related to ADV, specifically kidney and bone injury. This study was designed to compare viral suppression and kidney safety when switching LAM and ADV combination therapy de novo to entecavir (ETV) monotherapy in patients with CHB and compensated hepatic cirrhosis.
Materials and methods: In total, 360 CHB and compensated liver cirrhosis patients who received treatment of LAM and ADV combination therapy for more than 1 year were included in this study. One hundred and eighty patients continued combination therapy to serve as a control group and the other 180 patients were switched to ETV monotherapy to serve as the experimental group. The total course of therapy was 3 years. Laboratory studies were done every 3 months to measure liver and kidney function. Studies included glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), HBV-DNA, urine β2-microglobulin (β2-M) and retinol binding protein (RBP).
Results: In the experimental group, an HBV-DNA level below 20 IU/ml was found in 77.65%, 85.88%, and 94.77% in years 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In the control group, HBV-DNA levels were below 20 IU/ml in 69.66%, 75.42%, and 85.80% in years 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Low HBV-DNA levels in the experimental group were significantly less common than in the control group on the second and third year; P values were 0.009 and 0.006 for years 2 and 3, respectively. The cumulative genetic mutation rate was 3.49% in the experimental group and 8.88% in the control group (P=0.044). Decreases in eGFR more than 30% from baseline were found in 0%, 0.56%, and 1.74% of patients in the experimental group and 4.49%, 9.14% and 14.79% in patients in the control group in the first, second, and third year, respectively. Serum creatinine more than 50 μmol/L above baseline was found in 0%, 0% and 1.74% of patients in the experimental group and 1.12%, 4.00% and 5.32% of patients in the control group in years 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The urine β2-M and RBP levels were abnormal more often in the experimental group than in the control group.
Conclusion: Switching to ETV monotherapy can decrease HBV-DNA levels, reduce the genetic mutation rate, and prevent renal damage caused by LAM and ADV combination therapy in patients with CHB and compensated liver cirrhosis. Patients receiving LAM and ADV combination therapy de novo should be switched to ETV monotherapy immediately.
Keywords: ETV, LAM and ADV combination therapy de novo, switch, kidney safety