Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(14):1658-1666. doi:10.7150/ijms.28411 This issue

Research Paper

RKIP-Mediated NF-κB Signaling is involved in ELF-MF-mediated improvement in AD rat

Hongyan Zuo1*, Xiao Liu1*, Dewen Wang1✉, Yang Li1✉, Xinping Xu1, Ruiyun Peng1, Tao Song2

1. Department of Experimental Pathology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China
2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetism, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
*These authors contributed equally to this work.

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Zuo H, Liu X, Wang D, Li Y, Xu X, Peng R, Song T. RKIP-Mediated NF-κB Signaling is involved in ELF-MF-mediated improvement in AD rat. Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(14):1658-1666. doi:10.7150/ijms.28411. Available from

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In a previous study, we reported the positive effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-MF) exposure on Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In addition, we found that Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) was downregulated by microwave exposure in the rat hippocampus. Our hypothesis was that RKIP-mediated NF-κB pathway signaling is involved in the effect of ELF-MF on the AD rat. In this study, D-galactose intraperitoneal (50 mg/kg/d for 42 d) and Aβ25-35 hippocampal (5 μL/unilateral, bilateral, single-dose) injection were implemented to establish an AD rat model. Animals were exposed to 50 Hz and 400 µT ELF-MF for 60 continuous days. The spatial memory ability of the rat was then tested using the Morris water maze. Protein expression and interaction were detected by western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation for RKIP-mediated NF-κB pathway factors. The results showed that ELF-MF exposure partially improved the cognitive disorder, upregulated the levels of RKIP, TAK1, and the RKIP/TAK1 interaction, but downregulated p-IKK levels in AD rats. These results indicated that RKIP-mediated NF-κB pathway signaling plays an important role in the ELF-MF exposure-mediated improvements in the AD rat. Our study suggested that ELF-MF exposure might have a potential therapeutic value for AD. Further in depth studies are required in the future.

Keywords: ELF-MF, AD, rat, RKIP, NF-κB pathway