1. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
2. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Republic of Korea
Background: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a leading cause of surgical skin flap compromise and organ dysfunction. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an abundant reserve of various growth factors. Activated platelets play a role in endothelial damage during I/R injury; however, exogenous PRP could inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of PRP on I/R injury.
Methods: Four groups (n=30) of C57BL/6N mice with lateral thoracic artery island flaps were used. Group A, the control group, received flap elevation and repositioning. Group B received PRP and repositioning. Group C had 4 hours of ischemia and then were reperfused. Group D received PRP, had 4 hours of ischemia, and then were reperfused. The survival area of flap tissue and blood perfusion were assessed. Histological evaluation included neutrophil counts. Reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory cytokines were measured to evaluate I/R injury. Protein expression of phosphorylated apoptosis signaling regulating kinase-1 (pASK-1), p38MAPK, and pNF-κB was measured by western blot.
Results: PRP treatment enhanced the survival area and perfusion of the flap, reduced neutrophil accumulation in mice subjected to I/R injury. PRP treatment also showed a protective effect, with decreases in nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde concentrations. Additionally, PRP suppresses monocyte chemotactic protein-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Finally, PRP decreased ASK-1 and NF-κB expression in tissues with I/R injury.
Conclusion: PRP acts as a protective factor during flap I/R injury by reducing reactive oxygen species level and proinflammatory cytokines via decreased expression of pASK-1 and pNF-κB.
Keywords: Ischemia-reperfusion, Platelet-rich plasma, Axial flap