Int J Med Sci 2016; 13(12):892-901. doi:10.7150/ijms.16421 This issue

Research Paper

Association of physical performance and biochemical profile of mice with intrinsic endurance swimming

Wen-Ching Huang1, Yi-Ju Hsu1, Li Wei2, Ying-Ju Chen3✉, Chi-Chang Huang1✉

1. Graduate Institute of Sports Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan 33301, Taiwan.
2. Department of Neurosurgery, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei 11696, Taiwan.
3. Department of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, Taichung City 43301, Taiwan.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
Huang WC, Hsu YJ, Wei L, Chen YJ, Huang CC. Association of physical performance and biochemical profile of mice with intrinsic endurance swimming. Int J Med Sci 2016; 13(12):892-901. doi:10.7150/ijms.16421. Available from

File import instruction


We aimed to investigate the potential mediators and relationship affecting congenital exercise performance in an animal model with physical activity challenge from physiological and biochemical perspectives. A total of 75 male ICR mice (5 weeks old) were adapted for 1 week, then mice performed a non-loading and exhaustive swimming test and were assigned to 3 groups by exhaustive swimming time: low exercise capacity (LEC) (<3 hr), medium exercise capacity (MEC) (3-5 hr), and high exercise capacity (HEC) (>5 hr). After a 1-week rest, the 3 groups of mice performed an exhaustive swimming test with a 5% and 7.5% weight load and a forelimb grip-strength test, with a 1-week rest between tests. Blood samples were collected immediately after an acute exercise challenge and at the end of the experiment (resting status) to evaluate biochemical blood variables and their relation with physical performance. Physical activity, including exhaustive swimming and grip strength, was greater for HEC than other mice. The swimming performance and grip strength between groups were moderately correlated (r=0.443, p<0.05). Resting serum ammonium level was moderately correlated with endurance with a 7.5% weight load (r=-0.447, p<0.05) and with lactate level (r=0.598, p<0.05). The pulmonary morphology of the HEC group seemed to indicate benefits for aerobic exercise. Mice showed congenital exercise performance, which was significantly correlated with different physical challenges and biochemical variable values. This study may have implications for interference in intrinsic characteristics

Keywords: Congenital, Exercise performance, Endurance swimming, Forelimb grip, Ammonia.