Int J Med Sci 2016; 13(4):271-276. doi:10.7150/ijms.13601 This issue

Research Paper

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Vancomycin in Dermal Interstitial Fluid Using Dissolving Microneedles

Yukako Ito1, Yuto Inagaki1, Shinji Kobuchi1, Kanji Takada2, Toshiyuki Sakaeda1,✉

1. Department of Pharmacokinetics, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, 607-8412, Japan
2. BioSerenTach Inc., Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto, 600-8040, Japan

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Ito Y, Inagaki Y, Kobuchi S, Takada K, Sakaeda T. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Vancomycin in Dermal Interstitial Fluid Using Dissolving Microneedles. Int J Med Sci 2016; 13(4):271-276. doi:10.7150/ijms.13601. Available from

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Objective: To design an alternative painless method for vancomycin (VCM) monitoring by withdrawing interstitial fluid (ISF) the skin using dissolving microneedles (DMNs) and possibly replace the conventional clinical blood sampling method.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with 50 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital. Vancomycin at 5 mg/mL in saline was intravenously administered via the jugular vein. ISF was collected from a formed pore at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 min after the DMNs was removed from the skin. In addition, 0.3 mL blood samples were collected from the left femoral vein.

Results: The correlation between the plasma and ISF VCM concentrations was significantly strong (r = 0.676, p < 0.05). Microscopic observation of the skin after application of the DMNs demonstrated their safety as a device for sampling ISF.

Conclusion: A novel monitoring method for VCM was developed to painlessly determine concentrations in the ISF as opposed to blood sampling.

Keywords: vancomycin, dissolving microneedles, interstitial fluid, skin, rats, TDM