Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(5):515-521. doi:10.7150/ijms.5423 This issue


Inflammatory Response Following Diffuse Axonal Injury

Yu Lin1, Liang Wen2,✉

1. School of Medicine, Zhejiang University City College, China;
2. Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China.

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Lin Y, Wen L. Inflammatory Response Following Diffuse Axonal Injury. Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(5):515-521. doi:10.7150/ijms.5423. Available from

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DAI is a leading cause of the patient's death or lasting vegetable state following severe TBI, and up to now the detailed mechanism of axonal injury after head trauma is still unclear. Inflammatory responses have been proved to be an important mechanism of neural injury after TBI. However, most of these studies are concerned with focal cerebral injury following head trauma. In contrast to focal injury, studies on the inflammatory reaction following DAI are only beginning. And in this article, we aimed to review such studies. From the studies reviewed, immune response cells would become reactive around the sites of axonal injury after DAI. Besides, the concentrations of several important inflammatory factors, such as IL-1 family, IL-6 and TNF-ɑ, increased after DAI as well, which implies the participation of inflammatory responses. It can be concluded that inflammatory responses probably participate in the neural injury in DAI, but at present the study of inflammatory responses following DAI is still limited and the clear effects of inflammatory response on axonal injury remain to be more explored.

Keywords: Traumatic brain injury, Diffuse axonal injury, Inflammatory response.