Int J Med Sci 2007; 4(4):216-222. doi:10.7150/ijms.4.216 This issue

Research Paper

Association between vitamin D receptor gene haplotypes and chronic periodontitis among Japanese men

Mariko Naito1, Koichi Miyaki2, Toru Naito3, Ling Zhang4, Keika Hoshi 5, Asako Hara 6, Katsunori Masaki 6, Shugo Tohyama 6, Masaaki Muramatsu4, Nobuyuki Hamajima1, Takeo Nakayama2

1. Department of Preventive Medicine/Biostatistics and Medical Decision Making, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan
2. Department of Health Informatics, Kyoto University School of Public Health, Yoshida konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan
3. Department of General Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, 2-15-1 Tamura, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0193, Japan
4. Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-0062, Japan
5. Information Design Section, Center for Information Research and Library, National Institute of Public Health, 2-3-6 Minami, Wako, Saitama, 351-0197, Japan
6. Keio University Hospital, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan

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Naito M, Miyaki K, Naito T, Zhang L, Hoshi K, Hara A, Masaki K, Tohyama S, Muramatsu M, Hamajima N, Nakayama T. Association between vitamin D receptor gene haplotypes and chronic periodontitis among Japanese men. Int J Med Sci 2007; 4(4):216-222. doi:10.7150/ijms.4.216. Available from

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Background: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is involved in a variety of biological processes, such as bone metabolism and modulation of the immune response. Recent findings suggest that the pathway involving bone mineral density-mediated effects is important for the development of periodontitis, but their effects of combined VDR gene polymorphisms have not been confirmed on periodontitis. We assessed the relationship between ApaI, BsmI, and FokI VDR polymorphisms and the risk of severe chronic periodontitis among Japanese adult men.

Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we examined 97 unrelated healthy Japanese men (mean age: 45.6 years, range: 22-59). A clinical examination was performed at a worksite health checkup, and information was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire. DNA was extracted from whole blood, and the VDR ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction.

Results: F-carriers of FokI VDR polymorphisms were less likely to develop severe chronic periodontitis than non-F-carriers (p = 0.09). The ApaI and BsmI VDR polymorphisms did not show significant differences in the alleles or genotypes between the subjects with or without severe chronic periodontitis. The haplotype analysis of the three combined VDR polymorphisms revealed that the Abf homozygote had a notably higher prevalence of severe chronic periodontitis than the others, and adjustments for age, smoking status, number of teeth present, and prevalence of diabetes did not change this association (OR = 7.5; 95% CI = 1.6-34.4; p = 0.01).

Conclusion: The VDR haplotype constructed from the ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms is related to the risk of severe chronic periodontitis in Japanese men.

Keywords: chronic periodontitis, vitamin D receptor, polymorphism, haplotypes