1. Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Kanagawa University of Human Services, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 238-8522, Japan;
2. Department of Anesthesiology, Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama 241-0815, Japan.
Aim: Preoperative fasting is an established procedure to be practiced for patients before surgery, but optimal preoperative fasting time still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of “shortened preoperative fasting time” on the change in the amount of total body water (TBW) in elective surgical patients. TBW was measured by multi-frequency impedance method.
Methods: The patients, who were scheduled to undergo surgery for stomach cancer, were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. Before surgery, patients in the control group were managed with conventional preoperative fasting time, while patients in the “enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS)” group were managed with “shortened preoperative fasting time” and “reduced laxative medication.” TBW was measured on the day before surgery and the day of surgery before entering the operating room. Defecation times and anesthesia-related vomiting and aspiration were monitored.
Results: TBW values on the day of surgery showed changes in both groups as compared with those on the day before surgery, but the rate of change was smaller in the ERAS group than in the control group (2.4±6.8% [12 patients] vs. −10.6±4.6% [14 patients], p<0.001). Defecation times were less in the ERAS group. Vomiting and aspiration were not observed in either group.
Conclusion: The results suggest that preoperative management with “shorted preoperative fasting time” and “reduced administration of laxatives” is effective in the maintenance of TBW in elective surgical patients.
Keywords: preoperative patient management, shorted preoperative fasting time, total body water (TBW), multi-frequency impedance method, enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS)